Lonnie Ingram

Distinguished ProfessorIngram

Director, Florida Center for Renewable
Chemicals and Fuels (FCRC).
Department of Microbiology and Cell Science University of Florida.

Ph.D: University of Texas at Austin, 1971 in Botany
Postdoctoral: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1972

Contact Information


Teaching Interests

Microbial Biotechnology

Description of Research

General areas: Global redirection of  central metabolism by genetic engineering;  Industrial fermentation  processes;  Carbohydrate metabolism;  Expression and secretion  of glycohydrolases which degrade plant polymers;  Alcohol tolerance

Our work focuses on the  genetic engineering of novel bacterial biocatalyst for the conversion of  lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol fuels and other fermentation products  which can replace imported petroleum. This work involves cloning and moving  genes between bacteria to add new and useful traits to ethanol producing  organisms, design of novel engineering processes for the production of ethanol  (and other chemicals), nutritional investigations, and the identification  of genes which contribute to ethanol tolerance.  Global gene analysis  is being used to investigate fundamental processes in metabolically engineered  bacteria.


  • NSF Undergraduate Research Award at Duke University, 1968
  • NSF Summer Fellowship at the University of Texas, 1971
  • O.B. Williams Award, Texas Branch, American Society for Microbiology, 1970
  • National Institute Drug Abuse and Alcoholism, Research Career Development Award, 1979-1983
  • Invited Lectureship at Gulbenkian Institute, Oeris, Portugal, 1982 (International course on alcohol tolerance in yeast and bacteria)
  • Vice-President, Florida Branch of American Society for Microbiology, 1985-87
  • President, Florida Branch of American Society for Microbiology, 1987-1989
  • U.F. Sigma Xi Senior Faculty Research Award, 1990 Commendation from the Florida Senate and House, 1991
  • Commendation from the U.S. House of Representatives, 1991
  • University of Florida Research Achievement Award, 1991 and 1992
  • U.S. Department of Commerce, Landmark Patent No. 5,000,000, 1991
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, Distinguished Service Award, 1993
  • Distinguished Inventor Award, Florida Small Business Development Center, 1994
  • P.R. Edwards Award, Southeastern Branch of Amer. Soc. for Microbiol., 1996
  • University of Florida Professorial Excellence Award, 1996
  • University of Florida Research Foundation Professor, 1997-2000
  • Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology, 1998
  • invited guest, signing of Executive Order on Biobased Products and Bioenergy,     1999
  • Chairman, Fermentation and Biotechnology Division of the American Society of Microbiology, 2000-2001
  • Fellow, Society of Industrial Microbiology, 2001 Member, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 2001
  • Member, U.S. National Academy of Sciences 2001
  • Elected, American Academy of Microbiology Board of Governors  2006-09
  • Invited Advisor to President George W. Bush on Cellulosic Ethanol  2007
  • Member, Advisory Group of the Florida Energy Commission on Renewable Energy 2007
  • C.D. Scott Award for distingushed contributions to the field of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals at the 29th Syposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and

    Chemicals  2007

  • Member, Florida Governor’s Action Team on Energy and Climate Change  2007-2009
  • Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) 2008 Distinguished Scientist Award 2008
  • Recipient, The York Distinguished Lecturer Award 2008
  • UF FAES Award for more than $1M in grants in 2007-2008, 2010
  • UF FAES IFAS Award for Research Innovation 2010
  • UF FAES Award for Utility Patent Teams 2010-2011
  • Member, Florida Biofuels Association 2010-present
  • Top 100 People in Bioenergy, US. Biofuels Digest  2010
  • Member, Southeastern Regional SunGrant Center (Univ of Tennessee) 2011
  • Recipient, Wood Utilization Award (FL Society of American Foresters) 2011
  • Medalist, Florida Academy of Sciences 2013

U.S. Patents

5,000,000 – Ethanol Production by Escherichia coli Strains Co-expressing Zymomonas pdc and adh Genes. L.O. Ingram, F. Alterthum, T. Conway, 1991

5,028,539  – Ethanol Production using Engineered Mutant Escherichia coli. L.O. Ingram and D.C. Clark, 1992

5,162,516 – Cloning and Sequencing of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase II from Zymomonas mobilis. L.O. Ingram and T. Conway, 1992

5,424,202 – Ethanol Production by Recombinant Hosts. L. O. Ingram, D. S. Beall, G. F. H. Burchhardt, W.V. Guimaraes, K. Ohta, B. E. Wood, K. T. Shanmugam, D.E. Fowler, A. Ben-Bassat, 1995

5,482,846 – Ethanol Production by Gram-Positive Microbes. L.O. Ingram and M.D.F. Barbosa-Alleyne 1996

5,602,030 – Recombinant Glucose Uptake SystemL.O. Ingram, N. Arfman, and J. Snoep, 1997

5,821,093 – Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes. 1998

5,916,787 – Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes. Ingram, L.O. and M.D.F. Barbosa-Alleyne, 1999

6,102,690 – Recombinant organisms capable of fermenting cellobiose. L.O. Ingram, X. Lai, M. Moniruzzaman and S.W. York, 2000

6,107,093 – Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes. L. O. Ingram, K. Ohta, and B. E. Wood, 2000

6,130,076 – Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium. L.O. Ingram and S.W. York, 2000

6,333,181 – Ethanol production from lignocellulose. B.E. Wood and L.O.

6,849,434 – Ethanol production in recombinant hosts. L.O. Ingram and M.D.F. Barbosa  Alleyne (2005)

7,026,152 – Method and compositions for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. LO Ingram and S. Zhou. (2006)

7,098,009 – Production of chemicals from lignocellulose, biomass, or sugars. K.T.  Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram, M.A. Patel, M.S. Ou, R. Harbucker (2006)

7,192,772 – Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous Gene. Ingram LO, K Ohta, and BE Wood (2007)

7,226,776 – Recombinant hosts suitable for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Ingram, LO, and S Zhou (2007)

7,323,551 – Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor. Maupin-Furlow, JA, LA Talarico, RK Chandra and LO Ingram (2008)

7,629,162 – Materials and Methods for Efficient Lactic Acid Production. S. Zhou, L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugam, L.P. Yomano, T.B. Grabar, and J.C. Moore (Dec 2009)

7,977,075 – Materials and Methods for the Efficient Production of Acetate and Other Products. L.O. Ingram, T.B. Causey, S. Zhou, and K.T. Shanmugam. (2011)

8,124,259 – Enhanced electrical contact to microbes in microbial fuel cells. Andrew Rinzler,  L.O. Ingram, J.C. Moore, Zhuangchun Wu, K.T. Shanmugam. (2/28/2012)

8,383,374 – Materials and Methods for the Efficient Production of Acetate and Other Products. L.O. Ingram, T.B. Causey, S. Zhou and K.T. Shanmugam (02/26/2013)

8,426,191 -Escherichia coli B Engineered for Lactic Acid Production.  L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugan, L.P. Yomano, S. Zhou, T.B. Grabar, and J.C. Moore (04/23/2013)

8,465,953 B2- Ethanol Production  in Non-Recombinant Hosts. Y. Kim, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram  ( 06/18/2013)

Selected Publications


Jarboe, L.R., P. Liu, K. Kautharapu, L.O. Ingram. 2012. Optimization of enzyme parameters for fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. October 2012. 3(4) e201210005, Mini Review  Article http://dx.doi.org/10.5936/csbj.201210005

Jarboe, L.R., X. Zhang, X. Wang, J.C. Moore, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram. 2010. Metabolic engineering for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals: contributions of synthetic biology. J Biomed Biotechnol. 18pp Review Article http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbb/2010/761042.html

Doran-Peterson, J., A. Janguid, S.K. Brandon, E. DeCrescenzo-Henriksen, B. Dien, L.O. Ingram.  2010. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and partial saccharification and co-fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production.  Chapter 17. Methods Mol Biol 581: 263-80.

Jarboe, L.R., K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram.  2009  Ethanol  Encyclopedia of Microbiology (3rd Ed) Ed. D. Majumder-Russell. Elsevier

Luli, G.W., L.R. Jarboe, L.O. Ingram.  2008.  “The development of ethanologenic bacteria for fuel ethanol production”.  Bioenergy. 129-137.

Ingram, L.O., H.C. Aldrich, A.C.C. Borges, T.B. Causey, A. Martinez, F. Morales, A. Saleh, S.B. Underwood, L.P. Yomano, S.W. York, J. Zaldivar, and S. Zhou. 1999. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production. Biotechnol. Prog. 15: 855-866

Peterson, J.D., L.O. Ingram. 2008. Anaerobic respiration in engineered Escherichia coli with an internal electron acceptor to produce fuel ethanol. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1125:363-72. Review

Shanmugam, K.T., L.O. Ingram. 2008. Engineering biocatalysts for production of commodity chemicals. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008; 15(1):8-15.  Review.

Jarboe, L.R., T.B. Grabar, L.P. Yomano, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram. 2007. Development of ethanologenic bacteria. Book Chapter. Adv. Biochem Engin/Biotechnol 108: 237-261. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w34780x4t1gxrp55/


RamMohan, G. T. Goswami, Z. Tian, L.O. Ingram, P. Pullammanappallil. 2013. Photocatalytic treatment for final polishing of wastewater from a cellulosic ethanol process. J. Adv. Oxid. Technol. 16(2): 244-251

Tian, Z., G.R. Mohan, L.O. Ingram, P. Pullammanappallil. 2013. Anaerobic digestion for treatment of stillage from cellulosic bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology. 144: 387-395.

Wang, L., Z. Tong, L.O. Ingram, Q. Cheng, S. Matthews. 2013. Green Composites of poly (Lactic Acid) and sugarcane bagasse residues from bio-refinery processes. Journal of Polymers and the Environment. July 2013 Online. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10924-013-0601-3/fulltext.html

Zheng, H., X. Wang, L.P. Yomano, R.D. Geddes, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram 2013. Improving Escherichia coli FucO for Furfural Tolerance by Saturation Mutagenesis of Individual Amino Acid Positions. Appl & Environ Microbiol. 79(10): 3202-3208.

Wang, X. L.P. Yomano, J.Y. Lee, S.W. York, H. Zheng, M.T. Mullinix, K.T. Shanmugam, and L.O. Ingram. 2013. Engineering furfural tolerance in Escherichia coli improves the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars into renewable chemicals. PNAS 110(10): 4021-4026.

Geddes, C.C., M.T. Mullinnix, I.U. Nieves, R.W. Hoffman, W.J. Sagues, S.W. York, K.T. Shanmugam, J.E. Erickson, W.E. Vermerris, L.O. Ingram. 2013. Seed train development for the fermentation of bagasse from sweet sorghum and sugarcane using a simplified fermentation process. Bioresource Technology 128 (2013) 716–724.

Cheng, Q., Z. Tong, L. Dempere, L.O. Ingram, L. Wang, J.Y. Zhu. 2012. Disk refining and ultrasonication treated sugarcane bagasse residues for poly (Vinyl alcohol) bio-composites. J. Polym Environ. 10pp. Published online on December 18, 2012.

Zheng H, Wang X, Yomano LP, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO. 2012. Increase in furfural tolerance in ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180 by plasmid-based expression of thyA. Appl Environ Microbiol. 78(12): 4346-52.

Sun Z, P.M. Do, M.S. Rhee, L. Govindasamy, Q. Wang, L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugam. 2012. Amino acid substitutions at Glutamate-354 in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli lower the sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase to NADH. Microbiology, 1350-1358.

Chow, V., G. Nong, F.J. St. John, J.D. Rice, E.Dickstein, O. Chertkov, D. Bruce, C. Detter, T. Brettin, J. Han, T. Woyke, S. Pitluck, M. Nolan, A. Pati, J. Martin, A. Copeland, M.L. Land, L. Goodwin, J.B. Jones, L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugam, and J.F. Preston. 2012. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2. Standards in Genomic Sciences. 6:1-10.

Wang X, Miller EN, Yomano LP, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO. 2012. Increased furan-tolerance in Escherichia coli due to a cryptic ucpA gene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 78(7):2452-5.

Rhee, M.S., B.E. Moritz, G. Xie, T.G. del Rio, E. Dalin, H. Tice, D. Bruce, L. Goodwin, O. Chertkov, T. Brettin, C. Han, C. Detter, S. Pitluck, M.L. Land, M. Patel, M. Ou, R. Harbucker, L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shamugam. 2011. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1. Standards in Genomic Sciences. 5(3): 331-340.

Turner PC, Yomano LP, Jarboe LR, York SW, Baggett CL, Moritz BE, Zentz EB, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO. 2012. Optical mapping and sequencing of the Escherichia coli KO11 genome reveal extensive chromosomal rearrangements, and multiple tandem copies of the Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhB genes. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 39(4):629-39

Wang Q, Ingram LO, Shanmugam KT. 2011. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108(47):18920-5.

Edwards, M., E.D.  Henriksen, L.Yomano, B. Gardner, L.Sharma, L.O. Ingram, and J.Doran-Peterson. 2011. Addition of genes for cellobiase and pectinolytic activity in Escherichia coli for fuel ethanol production from pectin-rich lignocellulosic biomass. Appl & Environ Microbiol. 77(15): 5184-5191.

Wang, X., E.N. Miller, L.P. Yomano, X. Zhang, K.T. Shanmugam, and L.O. Ingram. 2011. Increased furfural tolerance due to oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli for production of ethanol and lactate Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15): 5132-5140.

Geddes, C.C., I. Nieves, and L.O. Ingram. 2011. Advances in ethanol production.  Current Opinion in Biotechnology 22(3): 312-319. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958166911000759

Nieves, I., C.C. Geddes, M. Mullinix, R.W. Hoffman, Z. Tong, E. Castro, K.T. Shanmugam, and L.O. Ingram. 2011. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.  Bioresource Technology. 102:6959-6965. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096085241100530X

Nieves, I.U, C.C. Geddes, E.N. Miller, M.T. Mullinnix, R.W. Hoffman, Z. Fu, Z. Tong, and L.O. Ingram. 2011. Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. Bioresour Technol. 2011 Apr; 102(8):5145-52. Epub 2011 Feb 24 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852411001933

Zhang, X., X. Wang, K.T. Shanmugam,L.O. Ingram. 2011. L-Malate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.  Appl Environ Microbiol 427-434 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097588

Turner PC, E.N. Miller, L.R. Jarboe, C.L. Baggett, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram. 2011. YqhC regulates transcription of the adjacent Escherichia coli genes yqhD and dkgA that are involved in furfural tolerance. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 38:431-439.

Ou, M.S., L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugam. 2010. L: (+)-Lactic acid production from non-food carbohydrates by thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.  J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38(5):599-605. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20694852

Su, Y., M.S. Rhee, L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugam. 2011. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.  J Ind Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38(3): 441-50 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20677017

Geddes, C.C., J.J.Peterson, M.T. Mullinix, S.A. Svoronos, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram. 2010. Optimizing cellulase usage for improved mixing and rheological properties of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Bioresour Technol 101(23): 9128-9136.

Geddes, C.C., M.T. Mullinix, I.U. Nieves, J.J. Peterson, R.W. Hoffman, S.W. York, L.P. Yomano, E.N. Miller, K.T. Shanmugam, L.O. Ingram 2011. Simplified process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli strain MM160. Bioresource Technology.102:2702-2711.

Wang, Q., M.S. Ou, Y. Kim, L.O. Ingram, K.T. Shanmugam 2010. Metabolic flux control at the pyruvate node in an anaerobic Escherichia coli strain with an active pyruvate dehydrogenase. Appl. Environ Microbiol. 76(7): 2107-2114.

Zhang, X., Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO. 2010. Fermentation of glycerol to succinate by metabolically engineered strains of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 76(7):2397-2401.

Miller EN, Turner PC, Jarboe LR, Ingram LO. 2010. Genetic changes that increase 5-hydroxymethyl furfural resistance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180. Biotechnol Lett. 32:661-667.

Wang Q, Ou MS, Kim Y, Ingram LO, Shanmugam KT. 2010. Metabolic Flux Control at the Pyruvate Node in an Anaerobic Escherichia coli with Active Pyruvate Dehydrogenase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 76(7): 2107-2114

Geddes, C.C, Peterson, C. Roslander, G Zacchi, MT Mullinix, KTShanmugam, LO Ingram. 2010. Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases. Bioresource Technology. 101: 1850-1857.

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